Onderzoek Ernst & Young in opdracht van Duitse regering, 30 juli 2013:
The EU Scenario targeting a roll-out quota of 80% by 2022 by a general mandatory installation provides a negative net present value and is also not economically reasonable for the majority of consumer groups. Even under optimistic assumptions, the majority of end consumers cannot compensate costs related to the installation and operation of smart metering systems by energy conversation and load shifting. Furthermore, a system charge must be paid by end customers over many years without benefiting from a smart metering system. Therefore, a system charge of €29 p.a. and per customer in addition to the current charge of €21.60 p.a. was not justifiable.